The temper in Tehran was tense on Wednesday morning when Ukraine Worldwide Flight 752 took off, certain for Kyiv. Simply hours earlier, Iran had fired missiles at two bases in Iraq that home United States troops, and Iranian forces had been on alert for an American counterstrike.

Nothing was uncommon concerning the aircraft’s takeoff and ascent, in keeping with preliminary satellite tv for pc knowledge. However minutes into the flight, the Boeing 737 was engulfed in flames because it plunged to the bottom, killing at least 176 people on board.

In one of the best of circumstances, figuring out the reason for a global aircraft crash can take a 12 months or extra of inauspicious investigative work and contain investigators from a number of governments. Resolving what occurred over the skies of Tehran could show much more sophisticated given the tensions between Iran, the place the aircraft went down, and the USA, the place it was constructed by Boeing, an organization within the midst of disaster after two earlier lethal accidents involving one other 737 mannequin.

The fast aftermath of the crash introduced complicated and contradictory statements from Ukraine and Iran. Ukraine’s embassy in Iran initially issued an announcement ruling out terrorism or a rocket assault. However the assertion was later faraway from the embassy’s web site and changed with one saying it was too early to attract any conclusions.

“All attainable variations of what occurred should be examined,” President Volodymyr Zelensky of Ukraine stated in a Facebook post, including that Ukrainian specialists would journey to Tehran to research and recuperate the our bodies of Ukrainians.

The uncertainty may additionally ripple via the aviation trade, which depends closely on the 737-NG for industrial journey. And for Boeing, the accident is the newest in a sequence of devastating occasions which have roiled the corporate for the reason that first 737 crash in Indonesia in late 2018.

The crash’s timing raised fast suspicions. Iran fired at People forces early on Wednesday in retaliation for a United States airstrike on Friday that killed a top Iranian general and the chief of Iran-backed Iraqi militias — the newest in a protracted sequence of escalations.

Investigators ought to put consideration of an assault “on the high of their agenda,” stated Peter Goelz, a former managing director of the Nationwide Transportation Security Board in the USA.

On Tuesday, hours earlier than the crash, the F.A.A. barred American airliners from flying over Iran, citing a danger that industrial planes can be mistaken for army plane. A number of non-American carriers rerouted flights on Wednesday to keep away from Iraq and Iran, in keeping with Flightradar24. In 2014, early within the struggle in jap Ukraine between authorities forces and Russia-backed separatists, a Russian missile shot down Malaysia Airlines Flight 17, killing 298 individuals.

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A spokesman for Iran’s armed forces, Abolfazl Shekarchi, stated the crash was not a results of any army motion.

“They’re spreading propaganda that the Ukrainian flight was focused,” the Iranian information media quoted Mr. Shekarchi as saying. “That is ridiculous. A lot of the passengers on this flight had been our valued younger Iranian women and men. No matter we do, we do it for the safety and protection of our nation and our individuals.”

Usually, the nation the place a crash happens leads an investigation, and consists of officers from the nation the place the aircraft was produced, in addition to nations the place the victims had been from. With the USA and Iran engaged in an escalating, violent battle, it was instantly obvious cooperation might be fraught.

The “black bins,” or flight knowledge recorders, had been recovered from the crash web site, and are normally despatched to the aircraft’s maker for evaluation. Nevertheless, the top of Iran’s Civil Aviation Group, Ali Abedzadeh, informed the semiofficial Mehr News Agency that Iran wouldn’t ship the recorders from the Ukraine Worldwide Airways flight to Boeing.

“We won’t give the black field to the producer and the People,” Mehr quoted him as saying. Ukrainian officers, he stated, can be concerned in Iran’s investigation of the crash.

Nevertheless, the airline promised a full investigation, involving officers from Ukraine, Iran and Boeing. Mr. Zelensky stated that he had ordered Ukraine’s prosecutor common to open a legal investigation into the crash and that the nation’s total civil aviation fleet can be checked.

“In world aviation we wish to suppose that the technical specialists will rule the day,” stated Michael Huerta, a former administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration. “However on condition that it’s Iran, we’ll have to attend and see.”

On Wednesday afternoon, the Nationwide Transportation Security Board in the USA, which frequently takes half in aviation accident investigations in different elements of the world, stated it had not but been requested to take part.

The 737 left Imam Khomeini Worldwide Airport in Tehran at 6:12 a.m. Wednesday. There have been 176 individuals aboard, together with 9 crew members, in keeping with the airline, which released the names of the dead. The Iranian authorities listed 177, whereas some Iranian information organizations cited different figures.

The aircraft had reached an altitude of just about 8,000 ft and a velocity of greater than 300 miles an hour, according to Flightradar24, which tracks aircraft by their radio signals. Two to 3 minutes after takeoff, it abruptly ceased the automated transmission of flight knowledge, although it remained within the air for a couple of minutes longer. Mr. Abedzadeh stated the airliner had not contacted the management tower about an emergency.

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The Iranian College students Information Company, a state-run media group, shared a video that it stated confirmed the predawn crash, with an plane, apparently in flames, descending within the distance earlier than a brilliant burst crammed the sky upon impression. The New York Occasions recognized one other video that confirmed the crash from a unique angle.

“It woke us up,” stated Sajad Shirkhani, 29, who lives close to the crash web site. “We obtained off the bed and ran outdoors, and the entire home windows on our residence had been damaged. We ran outdoors, we thought we had been hit by a missile, that there was a struggle.”

The aircraft crashed on agricultural land close to the village of Khalaj Abad, about 10 miles northwest of the place the aircraft’s sign was final logged by Flightradar24. The aircraft seems to have banked northeast and flown for a number of miles after its transponder stopped working.

Pictures and movies from the crash web site confirmed rescuers in a discipline plagued by aircraft particles, smoldering fires and the belongings of passengers. An evaluation by The Occasions of images of particles, structural injury and blood spatter means that the aircraft was returning to the Tehran airport when it crashed.

There was disagreement on the breakdown of the victims’ nationalities, although which may be as a result of some passengers held twin citizenship; Iran’s tally included 147 Iranians and two Canadians, whereas Vadym Prystaiko, Ukraine’s minister of overseas affairs, stated there have been 82 Iranians and 63 Canadians.

“Our authorities will proceed to work intently with its worldwide companions to make sure that this crash is completely investigated, and that Canadians’ questions are answered,” Justin Trudeau, Canada’s prime minister, said in a statement.

One other concept into the crash was that one of many aircraft’s two engines failed. Qassem Biniaz, an official on the Iranian Ministry of Roads and City Growth, informed the Islamic Republic Information Company, the federal government’s official information company, that an engine on the aircraft caught hearth and that the pilot was unable to regain management.

The Fars Information Company, a semiofficial Iranian media outlet, said in an article concerning the crash that “Boeing 737 passenger planes are infamous for frequent technical points,” an obvious reference to the 2 crashes involving the corporate’s 737 Max. Later, Mr. Abedzadeh informed Mehr that up to now there was no proof of technical issues.

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Industrial airliners are designed to have the ability to fly even when one engine fails. Engine fires are pretty widespread on industrial jets, however not often lead to crashes.

An “uncontained” engine failure, by which elements of an engine disintegrate, typically spraying particles that may injury and even destroy a aircraft, is uncommon. In 2018, a Southwest Airways flight on its manner from New York to Dallas experienced such an emergency, killing one individual.

The aircraft that crashed in Iran, a 737-NG, was manufactured in 2016 and delivered straight from the manufacturing facility, the airline stated, and it had most not too long ago undergone scheduled upkeep on Monday, two days earlier than the crash. The airline provided no theories as to what might need occurred and declined to touch upon whether or not it might need been shot down, however famous that the aircraft was being operated by a extremely skilled crew.

Whereas airways within the former Soviet Union typically have poor security data, Ukraine Worldwide Airways stated on its web site that its security was audited and met F.A.A. requirements for code-sharing flights with overseas companions. It had not beforehand skilled a deadly crash, in keeping with an inventory of Ukrainian plane accidents compiled by the Flight Safety Foundation.

The 737-NG is without doubt one of the world’s most generally used airliners; greater than 7,000 have been constructed since 1998, and the aircraft has logged greater than 250 million hours of flight time and fewer than a dozen deadly accidents.

However Boeing’s engineering has come below scrutiny over the previous 12 months, after two crashes involving a unique mannequin of jet, the 737 Max. These accidents, which had been triggered partly by new software program on the aircraft, have plunged Boeing into its biggest-ever disaster. The Max has been grounded worldwide since March, and the corporate’s chief govt was fired final month.

As the corporate struggles to get a repair for the Max authorized by regulators, new security dangers have not too long ago emerged with the aircraft. The corporate may also need to assess those risks in the 737-NG household, which incorporates the 737-800. Boeing shares had been down nearly 2 p.c on Wednesday.

If the crash in Tehran seems to be a mechanical failure, elevating questions concerning the 737-NG, the outcomes might be devastating for Boeing. “We’re conscious of the media reviews out of Iran and we’re gathering extra data,” Boeing stated in an announcement.

Reporting was contributed by Andrew Kramer, Natalie Kitroeff, James Glanz, Malachy Browne, Nilo Tabrizy, Farnaz Fassihi, Christiaan Triebert and Sarah Kerr.

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